- Unemployed and actively looking for work (currently 9.8%)
- Discouraged workers. Those who'd like to work but have given up. (another 10%)
- Underemployed. Those working part-time who'd like to work full time (another 10%)
- Misemployed job level. Those working at a lower-level job than they're qualified for (I estimate another 15%)
- Misemployed interest area. People who dislike their field of endeavor but felt forced to be in it because of a lack of jobs in a field they're interested in, for example, the arts. (I estimate another 20%).
What to do to reduce the underemployment rate?
- A national jobs database so employers and employees could more efficiently be matched.
- Career advising starting in the 8th grade so more people could, early on, identify a well-suited career goal.
- A public service announcement campaign encouraging people to hire tutors for their kids, personal assistants for themselves, and companions for their elderly relatives. That would create millions of pro-social jobs that currently don't exist.
- Have all high school students take a course in ethical entrepreneurship. People with new business ideas create jobs while meeting the citizenry's unmet needs.